National Team for the Acceleration of Poverty Reduction (TNP2K)
Programmes

About KIAT Guru

Summary

Teachers' Performance and Accountability (KIAT Guru) is a TNP2K initiative to improve education service in remote areas through several approaches, including community participation in education, improved mechanisms and transparency in teacher allowances, and allowance payments based on teacher attendance and quality of service provided. 

Background

  • Increased education budget and improved teacher’s welfare
    Since 2009, education has made up 20% of the state budget. Half of this is allocated for teacher salaries and allowances, which have continues to increase in the past three years. Teacher welfare has improved. Professional allowances for certified teachers can equal their base salary. For teachers who work in special areas (including remote areas) and receive special allowance, their combined income can equal up to three times their base salary.    
  • Student learning outcomes and achievements, particularly in remote areas, have not improved Despite increasing teacher welfare, the learning outcomes of students in Indonesia have not improved. Indonesia’s grade 8 student performances in maths, Bahasa Indonesia and natural sciences in TIMSS and PIRLS tests was lower in 2011, compared with 2007. Similarly, the performance of Indonesia’s 15-year-old student in PISA tests decreased in 2012, compared to 2009. There continues to be a significant gap between the quality of education service and learning outcomes between urban and rural areas. More than 50% of 15-year-old and above in rural/remote areas had only just or not yet graduated elementary school, compared to 30% in urban areas (BPS, 2012).   

Education achieved by BPS

  • Absenteeism among teachers in remote areas is relatively higher. A survey conducted by SMERU in 2010 showed a higher rate of teacher absenteeism in remote areas (24.4%) than the average national rate (15%). Even more unfortunate is that the rate of absenteeism among recipients of special allowances (31.5%) was much higher than that of non-recipients (25.4%). A similar survey by ACDP in 2014 indicated improvements, although the rate in remote schools (19.3%) remains double the national rate (9.4%). 

Graph 1. School location is correlated with the rate of teacher absenteeism SMERU, 2010; 2014).

Percentge of Teacher Absenteeism in Special Allowance Recipient Schools

Tabel 2. Absenteeism is higher among recipients of teacher allowances than non-recipients in the same school. (SMERU, 2010)

TNP2K acknowledges the importance of effective and accountable budgetary spending on teachers to help improve education services and learning outcomes, particularly in marginalised and remote communities. The vice president hopes that, as the ‘spearhead’ of education, increasing teacher’s income through the provision of special allowance will boost the motivation, innovation and performance of teachers. Therefore, TNP2K in collaboration with BAPPENAS, the Ministry of Education and Culture, the Ministry of Finance and several regional governments mapped out several main issues that have resulted from the KIAT Guru pilot. KIAT Guru Infographics can be downloaded here


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